Windows 2012 R2 Certification Authority installation guide

This step-by-step guide explains how to install and configure public key infrastructure, based on:

  • Windows 2012 R2 Server core – offline Root CA
  • Windows 2012 R2 domain controller
  • Windows 2012 R2 standard edition – Subordinate Enterprise CA server

Offline Root CA – OS installation phase

  1. Boot the server using Windows 2012 R2 bootable DVD.
  2. From the installation option, choose “Windows Server 2012 R2 Standard (Server Core Installation)” -> click Next.
  3. Accept the license agreement -> click Next.
  4. Choose “Custom: Install Windows Only (Advanced)” installation type -> specify the hard drive to install the operating system -> click Next.
  5. Allow the installation phase to continue and restart the server automatically.
  6. To login to the server for the first time, press CTRL+ALT+DELETE
  7. Choose “Administrator” account -> click OK to replace the account password -> specify complex password and confirm it -> press Enter -> Press OK.
  8. From the command prompt window, run the command bellow:
    sconfig.cmd
  9. Press “2″ to replace the computer name -> specify new computer name -> click “Yes” to restart the server.
  10. To login to the server, press CTRL+ALT+DELETE -> specify the “Administrator” account credentials.
  11. From the command prompt window, run the command bellow:
    sconfig.cmd
  12. Press “5″ to configure “Windows Update Settings” -> select “A” for automatic -> click OK.
  13. Press “6″ to download and install Windows Updates -> choose “A” to search for all updates -> Choose “A” to download and install all updates -> click “Yes” to restart the server.
  14. To login to the server, press CTRL+ALT+DELETE -> specify the “Administrator” account credentials.
  15. From the command prompt window, run the command bellow:
    sconfig.cmd
  16. In-case you need to use RDP to access and manage the server, press “7″ to enable “Remote Desktop” -> choose “E” to enable -> choose either “1″ or “2″ according to your client settings -> Press OK.
  17. Press “8″ to configure “Network settings” -> select the network adapter by its Index number -> press “1″ to configure the IP settings -> choose “S” for static IP address -> specify the IP address, subnet mask and default gateway -> press “2″ to configure the DNS servers -> click OK -> press “4″ to return to the main menu.
  18. Press “9″ to configure “Date and Time” -> choose the correct “date/time” and “time zone” -> click OK
  19. Press “11″ to restart the server to make sure all settings take effect -> click “Yes” to restart the server.
  20. 20. To login to the server, press CTRL+ALT+DELETE -> specify the “Administrator” account credentials.
  21. From the command prompt window, run the command bellow:
    powershell
  22. Run the commands bellow to enable remote management of the Root CA:
    Enable-NetFirewallRule -DisplayGroup "Remote Service Management"
    Note: The above command should be written in single line.
    Enable-NetFirewallRule -DisplayGroup "Remote Desktop"

Offline Root CA – Certificate Authority server installation phase

  1. To login to the server, press CTRL+ALT+DELETE -> specify the “Administrator” account credentials.
  2. From the command prompt window, run the command bellow:
    powershell
  3. Run the command below to create CA policy file:
    notepad c:\windows\capolicy.inf
  4. Specify the following data inside the capolicy.inf file:
    [Version]
    Signature="$Windows NT$"
    [Certsrv_Server]
    RenewalKeyLength=4096
    RenewalValidityPeriod=Years
    RenewalValidityPeriodUnits=20
    CRLPeriod=Weeks
    CRLPeriodUnits=26
    CRLDeltaPeriod=Days
    CRLDeltaPeriodUnits=0
    LoadDefaultTemplates=0
    AlternateSignatureAlgorithm=1
    [PolicyStatementExtension]
    Policies=LegalPolicy
    [LegalPolicy]
    OID=1.2.3.4.1455.67.89.5
    Notice="Legal Policy Statement"
    URL=http://www/CertEnroll/cps.asp
  5. Run the commands below to install Certification Authority using Powershell:
    Import-Module ServerManagerAdd-WindowsFeature ADCS-Cert-Authority -IncludeManagementTools
    Note: The above command should be written in single line.
  6. Run the command below to install the Root CA:
    Install-AdcsCertificationAuthority -CAType StandaloneRootCA -KeyLength 4096 -HashAlgorithmName SHA256 -ValidityPeriod Years -ValidityPeriodUnits 20 -CACommonName <CA_Server_Name> -CryptoProviderName "RSA#Microsoft Software Key Storage Provider"
    Note 1: The above command should be written in single line.
    Note 2: Replace “CA_Server_Name” with the Root CA NetBIOS name.
  7. Run the command below to remove all default CRL Distribution Point (CDP):
    $crllist = Get-CACrlDistributionPoint; foreach ($crl in $crllist) {Remove-CACrlDistributionPoint $crl.uri -Force};
    Note: The above command should be written in single line.
  8. Run the commands below to configure new CRL Distribution Point (CDP):
    Add-CACRLDistributionPoint -Uri C:\Windows\System32\CertSrv\CertEnroll\%3%8.crl -PublishToServer -Force
    Note: The above command should be written in single line.
    Add-CACRLDistributionPoint -Uri http://www/CertEnroll/%3%8.crl -AddToCertificateCDP -Force
    Note: The above command should be written in single line.
  9. Run the command below to remove all default Authority Information Access (AIA):
    $aialist = Get-CAAuthorityInformationAccess; foreach ($aia in $aialist) {Remove-CAAuthorityInformationAccess $aia.uri -Force};Note: The above command should be written in single line.
  10. Run the command below to configure new Authority Information Access (AIA):
    Add-CAAuthorityInformationAccess -AddToCertificateAia -uri http://www/CertEnroll/%1_%3.crt
    Note: The above command should be written in single line.
  11. Run the commands below to configure the Root CA settings:
    certutil.exe -setreg CA\CRLPeriodUnits 26
    certutil.exe -setreg CA\CRLPeriod "Weeks"
    certutil.exe -setreg CA\CRLDeltaPeriodUnits 0
    certutil.exe -setreg CA\CRLDeltaPeriod "Days"
    certutil.exe -setreg CA\CRLOverlapPeriodUnits 12
    certutil.exe -setreg CA\CRLOverlapPeriod "Hours"
    certutil.exe -setreg CA\ValidityPeriodUnits 20
    certutil.exe -setreg CA\ValidityPeriod "Years"
    certutil.exe -setreg CA\KeySize 4096
    certutil.exe -setreg CA\AuditFilter 127
  12. Run the commands bellow from command line, to configure the Offline Root CA to publish in the active-directory:
    certutil.exe -setreg ca\DSConfigDN "CN=Configuration, DC=mycompany,DC=com"
    Note 1: The above command should be written in single line.
    Note 2: Replace “DC=mycompany,DC=com” according to your domain name.
    certutil.exe -setreg ca\DSDomainDN "DC=mycompany,DC=com"
    Note: Replace “DC=mycompany,DC=com” according to your domain name.
  13. Run the command bellow to stop the CertSvc service:
    Restart-Service certsvc
  14. Run the command below to publish new CRL’s:
    certutil.exe -CRL

Enterprise Subordinate CA – OS installation phase
Pre-requirements:

  • Active Directory (Forest functional level – Windows 2012 R2)
  • Add “A” record for the Root CA to the Active Directory DNS.
  1. Boot the server using Windows 2012 R2 bootable DVD.
  2. From the installation option, choose “Windows Server 2012 R2 Standard (Server with a GUI)” -> click Next.
  3. Accept the license agreement -> click Next.
  4. Choose “Custom: Install Windows Only (Advanced)” installation type -> specify the hard drive to install the operating system -> click Next.
  5. Allow the installation phase to continue and restart the server automatically.
  6. To login to the server for the first time, press CTRL+ALT+DELETE
  7. Choose “Administrator” account -> click OK to replace the account password -> specify complex password and confirm it -> press Enter -> Press OK.
  8. From the “Welcome to Server Manager”, click on “Configure this local server” -> replace the “Computer name” -> restart the server.
  9. From the “Welcome to Server Manager”, click on “Configure this local server” -> click on Ethernet -> right click on the network interface -> properties -> configure static IP address.
  10. Enable “Remote Desktop”
  11. From the command prompt window, run the command bellow:
    powershell
  12. Run the commands bellow to enable remote management of the Root CA:
    Enable-NetFirewallRule -DisplayGroup "Remote Desktop"

Enterprise Subordinate CA – Certificate Authority server installation phase
Pre-requirements:

  • DNS CNAME record named “www” for the Enterprise Subordinate CA.
  • Make sure the clocks of the Offline Root CA and the Subordinate CA are synched.
  1. To login to the server, press CTRL+ALT+DELETE -> specify the credentials of account member of “Schema Admins”, “Enterprise Admins” and “Domain Admins”.
  2. Copy the files bellow from the Offline Root CA server to a temporary folder on the subordinate CA:
    C:\Windows\System32\CertSrv\CertEnroll\*.crt
    C:\Windows\System32\CertSrv\CertEnroll\*.crl
  3. Run the command below to publish the Root CA in the Active Directory:
    certutil.exe -dspublish -f "<CACertFileName.crt>" RootCA
    Note: Replace “CACertFileName” with the actual CRT file.
  4. Run the commands below to add the Root CA certificate to the subordinate CA certificate store:
    certutil.exe -addstore -f root "<CACertFileName.crt>"
    certutil.exe -addstore -f root "<CACertFileName.crl>"

    Note: Replace “CACertFileName” with the actual CRT and CRL files.
  5. From the command prompt window, run the command bellow:
    powershell
  6. Run the command below to create CA policy file:
    notepad c:\windows\capolicy.inf
  7. Specify the following data inside the capolicy.inf file:
    [Version]
    Signature="$Windows NT$"
    [Certsrv_Server]
    RenewalKeyLength=2048
    RenewalValidityPeriod=Years
    RenewalValidityPeriodUnits=5
    LoadDefaultTemplates=0
    AlternateSignatureAlgorithm=1
  8. Run the commands below to install Certification Authority using Powershell:
    Import-Module ServerManagerAdd-WindowsFeature ADCS-Cert-Authority -IncludeManagementTools
    Note: The above command should be written in single line.
    Add-WindowsFeature Web-Mgmt-Console
    Add-WindowsFeature Adcs-Web-Enrollment
  9. Open Server Manager -> From the “Welcome to Server Manager”, click on notification icon -> click on “Configure Active Directory Certificate Services on the destination server”
  10. Specify credentials and click on Next.
  11. Select both “Certification Authority” and “Certification Authority Web Enrollment” roles and click on Next.
  12. Select “Enterprise CA” -> click on Next.
  13. Select “Subordinate CA” -> click on Next.
  14. Select “Create a new private key” -> click on Next.
  15. Cryptography:
    Cryptographic service provider (CSP): RSA#Microsoft software Key Storage Provider
    Key length: 2048
    Hash algorithm: SHA256
  16. CA Name:
    Common name: specify here the subordinate server NetBIOS name
    Distinguished name suffix: leave the default domain settings
  17. Select “Save a certificate request to file on the target machine” -> click Next
  18. Specify the database location and click Next.
  19. Click on Configure -> wait until the process completes and click on Close.
    Note: If asked, choose not to configure additional role services.
  20. Copy the request file (*.req) to the Offline Root CA.
  21. Login to the Offline Root CA using administrative account.
  22. Run the command below to approve the subordinate CA certificate request:
    certreq -submit "<CACertFileName>.req"
    Note: Replace “CACertFileName” with the actual request file.
  23. Run the command below to approve the subordinate CA request:
    certutil -resubmit 2
    Note: Replace “2″ with the request ID.
  24. Run the command below to command to download the new certificate.
    certreq -retrieve 2 "C:\<CACertFileName>.cer"
    Note 1: Replace “CACertFileName” with the actual CER file.
    Note 2: Replace “2″ with the request ID.
  25. Logoff the Root CA and power it off for up to 179 days (for CRL update).
  26. Return to the Subordinate CA.
  27. Copy the file “c:\<CACertFileName>.cer” from the Offline Root CA to the Subordinate CA.
    Note: Replace “CACertFileName” with the actual CER file.
  28. Run the commands below to complete the Subordinate CA installation process:
    powershell
    Certutil -installcert "<CACertFileName>.cer"

    Note: Replace “CACertFileName” with the actual CER file.
  29. Run the command below to restart the CA service:
    start-service certsvc
  30. Run the command below to remove all default CRL Distribution Point (CDP):
    $crllist = Get-CACrlDistributionPoint; foreach ($crl in $crllist) {Remove-CACrlDistributionPoint $crl.uri -Force};
    Note: The above command should be written in single line.
  31. Run the commands below to configure new CRL Distribution Point (CDP):
    Add-CACRLDistributionPoint -Uri C:\Windows\System32\CertSrv\CertEnroll\%3%8%9.crl -PublishToServer -PublishDeltaToServer -Force
    Note: The above command should be written in single line.
    Add-CACRLDistributionPoint -Uri http://www/CertEnroll/%3%8%9.crl -AddToCertificateCDP -Force
    Note: The above command should be written in single line.
    Add-CACRLDistributionPoint -Uri file://\\<SubordinateCA_DNS_Name>\CertEnroll\%3%8%9.crl -PublishToServer -PublishDeltaToServer -Force
    Note 1: The above command should be written in single line.
    Note 2: Replace “<SubordinateCA_DNS_Name>” with the actual Subordinate CA DNS name.
  32. Run the command below to remove all default Authority Information Access (AIA):
    $aialist = Get-CAAuthorityInformationAccess; foreach ($aia in $aialist) {Remove-CAAuthorityInformationAccess $aia.uri -Force};
    Note: The above command should be written in single line.
  33. Run the commands below to configure new Authority Information Access (AIA):
    Add-CAAuthorityInformationAccess -AddToCertificateAia http://www/CertEnroll/%1_%3%4.crt -Force
    Note: The above command should be written in single line.
    Add-CAAuthorityInformationAccess -AddToCertificateAia "ldap:///CN=%7,CN=AIA,CN=Public Key Services,CN=Services,%6%11"Note: The above command should be written in single line.
    Add-CAAuthorityInformationAccess -AddToCertificateOcsp http://www/ocsp -Force
    Note: The above command should be written in single line.
  34. Run the commands below to configure the Root CA settings:
    Certutil -setreg CA\CRLPeriodUnits 2
    Certutil -setreg CA\CRLPeriod "Weeks"
    Certutil -setreg CA\CRLDeltaPeriodUnits 1
    Certutil -setreg CA\CRLDeltaPeriod "Days"
    Certutil -setreg CA\CRLOverlapPeriodUnits 12
    Certutil -setreg CA\CRLOverlapPeriod "Hours"
    Certutil -setreg CA\ValidityPeriodUnits 5
    Certutil -setreg CA\ValidityPeriod "Years"
    certutil -setreg CA\AuditFilter 127
    certutil -setreg CA\EncryptionCSP\CNGEncryptionAlgorithm AES
    certutil -setreg CA\EncryptionCSP\SymmetricKeySize 256
    certutil -setreg CA\CRLFlags +CRLF_REVCHECK_IGNORE_OFFLINE
    certutil -setreg policy\EditFlags +EDITF_ATTRIBUTESUBJECTALTNAME2
    Note: The above command should be written in single line.
  35. Run the command bellow to stop the CertSvc service:
    Restart-Service certsvc
  36. Run the command below to public new CRL’s:
    certutil.exe -CRL
  37. Copy the files bellow from the Root CA to the subordinate CA (same location):
    C:\Windows\System32\CertSrv\CertEnroll\*.crl
    C:\Windows\System32\CertSrv\CertEnroll\*.crt
  38. Create CPS (Certificate Practice Statement), save it as “cps.asp” inside the subordinate CA under the folder below:
    C:\Windows\System32\CertSrv\CertEnroll
    Note: For more information about Certificate Practice Statement, see:
    http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc780454(v=ws.10).aspx
  39. Login to a domain controller in the forest root domain, with account member of Domain Admins and Enterprise Admins.
  40. Open Server Manager -> Tools -> Active Directory Users and Computers.
  41. From the left pane, expand the domain name -> choose an OU and create the following groups:
    Group name: CA Admins
    Group description/purpose: Manage CA server
    Group name:
    CA Issuers
    Group description/purpose: Issue certificates
  42. Logoff the domain controller.
  43. Login to the Subordinate CA using administrative account, who is also member of the “CA Admins” group.
  44. Open Server Manager -> Tools -> Certification Authority.
  45. From the left pane, right click on the CA server name -> Properties -> Security tab -> Add -> add the “CA Admins” group -> grant the permissions “Issue and Manage Certificates” and “Manage CA” and remove all other permissions -> click on OK.
    Note: As best practices, it is recommended to remove the default permissions of “Domain Admins” and “Enterprise Admins”.
  46. From the left pane, expand the CA server name -> right click on Certificate Templates -> Manage -> from the main pane, right click on “User” certificate -> Duplicate Template -> General tab -> rename the template to “Custom User Certificate” -> Security tab -> click on Add -> add the “CA Issuers” group -> grant the permission “Read”, “Enroll” and “Autoenroll” -> click on OK.
  47. From the main pane, right click on “Web Server” certificate -> Duplicate Template -> General tab -> rename the template to “Custom Web Server Certificate” -> Request Handling tab -> select “Allow private key to be exported” -> Security tab -> click on Add -> add the “CA Issuers” group -> grant the permission “Read” and “Enroll” -> remove the permissions for the built-in Administrator account -> click on OK.
    Note: All computer accounts requesting the “Custom Web Server Certificate” certificate must be member of the “CA Issuers” group.
  48. From the main pane, right click on “OCSP Response Signing” certificate -> Duplicate Template -> General tab -> rename the template to “Custom OCSP Response Signing” -> Security tab -> add the subordinate CA computer account -> grant “Read”, “Enroll” and “Autoenroll” -> click OK.
  49. From the main pane, right click on “Web Server” certificate -> Properties -> Security tab -> click on Add -> add the “CA Issuers” group -> grant the permission “Read” and “Enroll” -> click OK
  50. Close the Certificate Templates Console.
  51. From the Certification Authority console left pane, right click on Certificate Templates -> New -> Certificate Template to issue -> select the following certificate templates:
    Web Server
    Custom User Certificate
    Custom Web Server Certificate
    Custom OCSP Response Signing
  52. Click OK.
  53. Close the Certification Authority console.
  54. Open Server Manager -> Manage -> Add Roles and Features -> click Next 3 times -> expand “Active Directory Certificate Services” -> select “Online Responder” -> click on Add Features -> click Next twice -> click on Install -> click on Close
  55. From the upper pane, click on notification icon -> click on “Configure Active Directory Certificate Services on the destination server”
  56. Specify credentials and click on Next.
  57. Select “Online Responder” -> click Next -> click on Configure -> click Close.
  58. From the left pane, right click on “Online Responder” -> Responder Properties -> Audit tab -> select “Changes to the Online Responder configuration”, “Changes to the Online Responder security settings” and “Requests submitted to the Online Responder” -> click OK -> close the “Online Responder Configuration” console.
  59. Open Server Manager -> Tools -> Local Security Policy -> from the left pane, expand “Advanced Audit Policies” -> expand “System Audit Policies – Local Group Policy Object” -> click on Object Access -> from the main pane, double click on “Audit Certification Services” -> select “Configure the following audit events” -> select both Success and Failure -> click OK -> close the Local Security policy console.
  60. Run from command line:
    certutil -CRL
  61. Run from command line:
    certutil -v -setreg policy\editflags +EDITF_ENABLEOCSPREVNOCHECK
    Note: The above command should be written in single line.
  62. Run the commands bellow to stop the CertSvc service:
    powershell
    Restart-Service certsvc
  63. Open Server Manager -> Tools -> Online Responder Management
  64. From the left pane, right click on “Revocation Configuration” -> Add revocation configuration -> click Next -> on the name field, specify “Custom Revocation Configuration” -> click Next -> select “Select a certificate for an Existing enterprise CA” -> click Next -> click Browse -> select the subordinate CA -> click OK -> Automatically select a signing certificate -> click Next -> click Finish
  65. Close the Online Responder Management console
  66. Login to a domain controller in the forest root domain, with account member of Domain Admins and Enterprise Admins.
  67. Copy the files bellow from the subordinate CA server to a temporary folder on the domain controller:
    C:\Windows\System32\CertSrv\CertEnroll\*.crt
    Note: Copy the newest files
  68. Open Server Manager -> Tools -> Group Policy Management.
  69. From the left pane, expand the forest name -> expand Domains -> expand the relevant domain name -> right click on “Default domain policy” -> Edit.
  70. From the left pane, under “Computer Configuration” -> expand Policies -> expand “Windows Settings” -> expand “Security Settings” -> expand “Public Key Policies” -> right click on “Trusted Root Certification Authorities” -> Import -> click Next -> click Browse to locate the CRT file from the Root CA server -> click Open -> click Next twice -> click Finish -> click OK.
  71. From the left pane, under “Computer Configuration” -> expand Policies -> expand “Windows Settings” -> expand “Security Settings” -> expand “Public Key Policies” -> right click on “Intermediate Certification Authorities” -> Import -> click Next -> click Browse to locate the CRT file from the Subordinate CA server -> click Open -> click Next twice -> click Finish -> click OK.
  72. From the main pane, right click on the certificate name -> Properties -> OCSP tab -> inside the empty “Add URL” field, specify:
    http://www/ocsp
    Click on Add URL -> Click OK.
  73. From the left pane, under “Computer Configuration” -> expand Policies -> expand “Windows Settings” -> expand “Security Settings” -> click on “Public Key Policies” -> from the main pane, right click on “Certificate Services Client – Certificate Enrollment Policy” -> Properties -> change the “Configuration Model” to “Enabled” and click OK.
  74. From the left pane, under “Computer Configuration” -> expand Policies -> expand “Windows Settings” -> expand “Security Settings” -> click on “Public Key Policies” -> from the main pane, right click on “Certificate Services Client – Auto-Enrollment” -> Properties -> change the “Configuration Model” to “Enabled” -> select “Renew expired certificates, update pending certificates, and remove revoked certificates” and “Update certificates that use certificate templates” -> click OK.
  75. From the left pane, under “Computer Configuration” -> expand Policies -> expand “Administrative Templates” -> expand “Windows Components” -> expand “Internet Explorer” -> expand “Internet Control Panel” -> expand “Security Page” -> double click on “Site to zone assignment list” -> click on “Enabled” -> under Options, click on “Show” -> inside “Value name”, specify the Subordinate CA DNS name -> inside “Value”, specify 2 -> click OK twice.
  76. Close the “Group Policy Management”.
  77. Logoff the domain controller.
  78. Login to the Subordinate CA using administrative account.
  79. Open Server Manager -> Tools -> Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager.
  80. From the left pane, expand the server name -> expand Sites -> click on “Default Web Site” -> from the right pane, click on “Bindings” -> click on Add -> from the Type, select HTTPS -> under “SSL Certificate”, select the Subordinate CA certificate -> click OK -> click on Close.
  81. From the left pane, expand “Default Web Site” -> click on “CertSrv” -> from the main pane, double click on “Request Filtering” -> click Edit Feature Settings -> select “Allow Double Escaping” -> click OK
  82. From the main pane, double click on “SSL Settings” -> select “Require SSL” -> click on Apply.
  83. Close the Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager console.
  84. Run PKIVIEW.msc to make sure the entire PKI structure is fully functional.
  85. Logoff the Subordinate CA.

 

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