We all know, I guess, about the professionalization of Internet crime and the diversification of the underground economy, but measuring it isn’t so easy.
ESET’s Aleksandr Matrosov and Eugene Rodionov have alluded to it in several papers and presentations with particular reference to TDSS, and we consolidated some of that material into an article (actually the first of a series of three articles on TDSS) that talks about the Dogma Millions and GangstaBucks affiliate models used in that context.
However, a paper on Measuring Pay-per-Install: The Commoditization of Malware Distribution by Juan Caballero, Chris Grier, Christian Kreibich, and Vern Paxson, is based on a measurement study implemented by infiltrating four PPI service providers: LoaderAdv (of which GangstaBucks is one of the brands), GoldInstall, Virut, and Zlob. The authors assert that 12 out of the top 20 malware families tracked by Fire Eye between April and June 2010, twelve were using PPI services to buy infections.
Lots of other interesting data there, too. Hat tip to Aleks for bringing it to my attention.
David Harley CITP FBCS CISSP
ESET Senior Research Fellow