the most important infosec component
When I first started working in Information Security, the big “thing” was firewalls. It’s probably hard to believe now, but back then, it wasn’t simply a question of which firewall to install but rather whether to install one at all. I spoke to a lot of former sysadmins who had been repurposed, willy-nilly, as security engineers. They didn’t know much about network security, but they did know that they probably needed to keep “bad stuff” out: hence, the firewall.
These days, if you are in charge of security for an enterprise, you don’t ask yourself if you should install a firewall; instead you’re trying to figure out what types and how many different kinds of intrustion prevention you can get away with on your budget, along with asset and vulnerability scanners, SIEMs, and on and on. Information security has been productized to the point where it’s easy to forget the single most important infosec component in any business, and by that I mean the people who work for and with it.
Smart CEOs these days will say that their most important assets are their employees. That’s very warm and fuzzy, but anybody who has been let go from a company for any reason that isn’t related directly to job performance will tell you that upper level management cares much more about the bottom line than about the inner workings of their employees’ minds. I’m not crazy: a business has to make money, because that is the reason it exists. But businesses also have to realize that employees are, in fact, both assets and liabilties when it comes to that bottom line.
Consider this: every single one of your employees has a life outside his or her job. Mary is a devout Catholic who sings in her church’s award-winning choir. Bill plays in a poker league on Thursday nights and weekends. George and his wife Tess, who both work for different departments, sell Amway together. Jeannette saves up her paid time off to travel all over the world. And Jack? That kind of gothy looking guy with the tattoos that you have working in the infosec department, the one who begs you to send him to SANS and Black Hat every year? Well, when you don’t, he splits the difference and goes to LayerOne and SchmooCon and DefCon.
You can’t control what your employees do in their spare time, nor should you. But if you think that they are not thinking about what they do in their spare time while they are at work, you are wrong, and that is what so many executives don’t take into account when they are thinking about their company’s security posture. The “rank and file” care about the company’s bottom line insofar as it provides them with a paycheck, and most of the time, that is where their caring stops. They do not realize, because it is not part of their job to do so, that what they are thinking or doing at any given point could affect your business. You don’t realize it either, and that’s a problem, because it IS part of your job to know that.
If your business is subject to government or industry regulation(s), you very likely have a security policy. This policy defines physical and network assets, who has access to them, and some kind of vulnerability management and compliance schedule, at a minimum. You probably think that the “access” part takes care of intentional or unintentional abuse of your non-human assets by your human assets: they can’t use the red stapler; they can’t access the HR file server; they can’t post to Facebook from the company network. Even if you can’t stop them, they know from reading the policy that if they are caught doing any of those things, they could be punished, including losing their jobs.
Your employees are smart and innovative: that is why you hired them. They can, or think they can, outwit your automated security components to do what they want to do, and as long as they are also getting their jobs done, no harm no foul, right? Wrong: every minute a human asset spends doing something at work that is against your security policy is a minute of their salary, and, should it end up causing problems that need to be corrected, the salaries of other human assets. This leads in turn to the company’s bottom line being adversely affected over time.
You might think that the obvious solution to this problem is to employ tighter controls and install more automated security components in order to get your human assets to adhere to your security policy. However, I am going to go out on a limb and say that your first step, when faced with employee non-adherence, is to revisit the security policy and determine how it can be brought in line, while still remaining in compliance with governement and industry regulations, with the reality of what is going on with your employees’ lives.
Your employees fail to comply with your security policy, for the most part, not because they don’t care but because they don’t understand how it affects them. Given how smart they are (right?), if they don’t understand this, it is because they’ve never had it explained to them in a way that they can relate to. As an executive of the company, this is your responsibility: to show your employees how they directly affect the amount of money in their paychecks, and to work with them to make the company, and they themselves, earn more rather than stealing from the bottom line.
Alice likes to post to Facebook on company time? Create a company Facebook page and put Alice and her posty friends in charge of it. Mary is spending too much time on choir-related activities at work? See if you can work her choir or a subset thereof into company events, to everybody’s benefit. You’re worried about Jack’s possible hackerish activities? Send him as an official company rep to the conferences he already attends, plus the ones he wants to attend, and encourage him to share his own ideas for strengthening the security posture of your enterprise. All these things will cost money up front, but you will find that when your employees feel that they are being listened to and valued for who they are, those upfront costs will bring in more revenue for the company. Ask Google.
There is absolutely no way to completely automate security, because you can’t control what is going on in the heads of your employees. But when you truly treat your employees as the assets you say they are, your security posture WILL improve.